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Drivers & Pressures

Drivers are anthropogenic activities that may have an environmental effect [1], for instance:

  • Agriculture
  • Urbanization
  • Industry
  • Water supply
  • Navigation (and transport in general)
  • Fisheries
  • Recreation
  • Flood protection

Pressures are the direct effect of the driver, for example, an effect that causes a change in flow conditions or a change in water quality.

Driver pressure.jpg


  • Driver: Navigation
  • Pressure: Channelisation

The main hydromorphological pressures affecting European freshwater systems have been identified in the EFI+ project and EU Intercalibration process. These pressures have been organized into pressure groups, indicated below as Subcategories, according to the Water Framework Directive. Click in the subcategory to see the pressures contained in it. The complete list of pressures is presented at the bottom of the page under Pages in category "Pressures"

For each pressure group a number of possible restoration and rehabilitation measures are discussed in the section Aims & Measures.


  1. WFD-UKTAG,Terms and definitions under Water Framework Directive